Residential Energy and Economic Analysis

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of cost-effective energy codes and standards to increase efficiency in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a series of cost analyses, covering the 2009 and 2012 editions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for new single- and multi-family homes. The evaluation was performed against a 2006 IECC baseline, taking state-specific code amendments into consideration.

National Analysis:

  • Energy Analysis: A national comparison of energy savings by climate zone.
  • Cost Analysis: A national overview of cost-effectiveness by climate zone.
  • HERS Analysis: An evaluation of the relationship between the Residential Energy Services Network's (RESNET) Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Index and the traditional simulation-based Performance Path used in the IECC.

State Analysis:

Cost-effectiveness reports covering state-specific scenarios are available below in Table 1.

DOE assesses the cost-effectiveness of residential codes based on a life-cycle approach, balancing first costs against longer-term energy savings over the life of the home. More information on the DOE analysis is presented in the Technical Support Document, which documents the analytical approach, energy and cost savings analysis results, and other details regarding the analysis methodology. The resulting simulation input and output files used in the analysis are available on the Residential Prototype Building Models page.

A webinar presentation is also available, providing an overview of the analyses, both national and state results, as well as the underlying methodology

For questions not covered in the report, or other concerns, please contact the Building Energy Codes Program help desk.

Table 1. Cost Effectiveness Analysis by State*
Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas
California* Colorado Connecticut Delaware
District of Columbia Florida* Georgia Hawaii
Idaho Illinois* Indiana Iowa
Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine
Maryland* Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota
Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska
Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico
New York North Carolina* North Dakota Ohio
Oklahoma Oregon* Pennsylvania Rhode Island
South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas
Utah Vermont Virginia Washington*
West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming  
*Cost Analysis not planned for this state.

For more information on the cost-effectiveness of residential building energy codes, see