DOE Building Energy Codes Program Infographics

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) tracks and analyzes data related to the adoption, compliance, and implementation with the latest model energy codes. The following maps and graphics provide additional context to improve understanding of energy codes across the country.

For a more interactive experience, all maps and graphics may be accessed on Tableau Public by clicking on each image or going to BECP's Tableau Public page.

Estimated Model Energy Code Improvement

Figure 1 outlines the estimated national average energy use reduction in model energy codes from 1975 to the present. Green down arrows indicate a more efficient code while red up arrows indicate lost efficiency from code to code. Data presented in this graph is based on total building energy use. Click on the figure to access an interactive version of this graph on BECP's Tableau Public page.

Figure 1: Estimated Improvement in Residential and Commercial Energy Codes

Energy Code Improvement (75-21) graphic

Site Energy Index by State

Figures 2 and 3 compare each state's modeled site energy index for the last six residential IECC and commercial ASHRAE Standard 90.1 editions (line chart) to the state's current residential or commercial energy code (dots). If the state's current code has a higher Site Energy Index (SEI) than the latest model code, the code is less efficient, and if lower, the state code is more efficient than the latest model code. To see how your state compares to the latest code editions, click on the figures to access interactive versions of these graphs on BECP's Tableau Public page.

Figure 2: Residential Site Energy Index by Code & State

Residential State Energy Index graphic

Figure 3: Commercial Site Energy Index by Code & State

Commercial State Energy Index graphic

Another way to understand how each state energy code performs is to compare it to a single baseline code. Figures 4 and 5 highlight the percent difference between the state SEI and the SEI of the latest national model energy codes, the 2021 IECC and ASHRAE 90.1-2019. Shades of green indicate the level of energy code efficiency. Dark green indicates the state code is as or more efficient than the national model code, where shades of turquoise and gray indicate a less efficient state code. States in white either do not have a statewide energy code or have a custom code that DOE did not analyze. To see how your state compares to the latest national model code, click on each map to access its interactivity on BECP's Tableau Public page.

Figure 4: Residential Energy Code: State Energy Index Relative to Current Model Code (2021 IECC)

2021 IECC State Code Comparison graphic

Figure 5: Commercial Energy Code: State Energy Index Relative to Current Model Code (Standard 90.1-2019)

90.1-2019 State Code Comparison graphic

Municipal Building Codes and Ordinances

To understand which energy codes are being implemented at the municipal level, Figures 6 and 7 assess the energy code equivalency of the current residential and commercial energy codes being enforced in major cities across the country. Cities were selected based on the amount of construction activity in the surrounding metro area and their authority to adopt a more efficient energy code. The circle size is proportional to construction volume, and color indicates estimated city code equivalency. To interact with these maps and explore the energy code specifics of your city, click on each map to access BECP's Tableau Public page.

Figure 6: City Residential Energy Code Efficiency (with Authority to Adopt)

Metro Residential Code graphic

Figure 7: City Commercial Energy Code Efficiency (with Authority to Adopt)

Metro City Commercial graphic

In addition to energy code adoption and implementation, many jurisdictions are adopting building requirements addressing on-site solar and electric vehicle charging infrastructure. There are two primary ways to adopt these policies, either through the building code or a local ordinance. Figure 8 provides a high-level overview of where policies to support solar and electric vehicle infrastructure in buildings are adopted. Click on the map to access BECP's Tableau Public page.

Figure 8: State and Local Electric Vehicle and Solar Building Requirements

EV and PV Requirements graphic

Existing Building Policies

Until recently, a mechanism to regulate energy use in existing buildings did not exist. However, the introduction of Building Performance Standards (BPS), which set energy or emissions targets for existing buildings to achieve over a given time frame, changed that. Figure 9 highlights where a BPS is either in place or is being considered at the state and local levels. Click on the map to access BECP's Tableau Public page.

Figure 9: State and Local Building Performance Standards

Building Performance Standards graphic


The DOE BECP has developed research methods to support states in studying the impacts of their building energy codes. The objectives of energy code field studies are to document typical design and construction practices, target areas for improvement through workforce education and training initiatives and quantify energy efficiency and environmental impacts in buildings. States are encouraged to conduct field studies every 3-5 years to validate the effects of codes and other energy-efficiency programs and benchmark technology trends in residential and commercial construction.

Figures 10 and 11 highlight states that have conducted field studies assessing energy code compliance in single-family, multifamily, or commercial buildings within the last decade. Although DOE funded many of these studies to demonstrate early success, states and jurisdictions have utilized DOE methodologies to fund and facilitate studies outside the DOE program. To read more about states that have conducted a field study according to a DOE methodology, click here.

Figure 10: Residential Energy Code Field Studies

Residential Field Studies graphic

Figure 11: Commercial Energy Code Field Studies

Compliance Field Studies graphic